It is also equally valuable to find information that does not support your stance and argue against those opposite points of view. Many instructors use the term supporting details or concrete details instead of evidence. The strongest type of evidence is that which provides direct proof of the truth of an assertion. You will need supporting evidence to prove the data you introduce in your writing was not taken out of the blue, but was acquired as a result of thorough research, conducted either by you, or by other researchers. Using facts is a powerful means of convincing. Exercise 1: Recognising supported and unsupported facts, Exercise 2: Recognising types of supporting detail, (counter evidence to support your opposing position). The Literacy Reference Group (2017, para. direct quotes, paraphrases, summaries) Authoritative Opinions: Experts in the field about which you are writing provide supporting details and evidence for your thesis statement. © University of New England CRICOS Provider Number 00003G. The type and amount are dependent on the type of organization that is being audited and the required audit scope. The writer’s opinion may also serve as an authoritative opinion if it is supported by facts. Often, writers don’t know what to do to improve the impact of their writing … Facts. Evidence is what a writer uses to support or defend his or her argument, and only valid and credible evidence is … The different kinds of evidence used include stories, witness statements, technical reports, statistics from patient trials or the data from surveys. rules may vary) about where you should put your evidence: Statements in academic writing need to be supported by factual details. When writing about literature, evidence takes the form of plot summaries or specific quotations. Here are some of the most common types of evidence writers use to support their points: Numbers (for example, date and time, or any specific number or measurement: Length of a boat, number of witnesses, votes for a certain bill, score of a game, etc.) He mentioned also that even if the South African snipe did exist, I probably had no idea how to define supporting details, since nothing I wrote substantiated my claims. For instance, in the case of the Space Shuttle Challenger, the writer might use … Some educators argue that assignments are time consuming to mark (your opposing statement). Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion, because evident things are undoubted. write the reasons /evidence to support what you say (a number of sentences). Every time you use numbers to support a main point, you’re relying on statistical evidence to carry your argument. For example, researchers (George et al., 2016; Jones & Brown, 2013; Smith, 2012) find that many students misuse commas, mix up colons and semicolons and use capital letters incorrectly. For instance, Smith and Jones (2014, p. 27) find that students who do assignments demonstrate a better use of the terminology of their subject when they write in their exams than students who do only exam assessment (evidence to support your statement). Being able to use supporting details effectively means discussing evidence that is relevant to the issues in your essay. Remember that your evidence must appeal to reason. For example: Check the following sentence to see if you can recognise unsupported and supported facts: The learning and teaching report showed that incorrect punctuation caused the most problems for students in conveying meaning in their essay writing (Department of Student Services, 2013, p. 23). In a standard essay, you can follow these general rules (i.e. Both of these lend validity to an argument. The classification of lines of evidence into five different types is quite arbitrary. Be sure the quote emanates from an authoritative source and is not misleading. Here are some ways to work evidence into your writing: Offer evidence that agrees with your stance up to a point, then add to it with ideas of your own. CONCLUSION PARAGRAPHS have a special function. Supporting evidence can be a summary, paraphrased or a direct quote. Present evidence that contradicts your stance, and then argue against (refute) that evidence and therefore strengthen your position. After teaching students how to do research, teach them how to use the information they’ve collected. Remember those McDonald’s signs that said “Over 1 billion served”? When you are editing your writing, you will need to check that you have supported your claims with adequate evidence. For example, if the evidence is published in an academic journal article, then the evidence is likely credible because of both the person/people responsible for writing the article (a scholar or scholars in the field) as well as the journal that published it (that relies on a peer review process). The Australian Association of Essay Writing (2012, p. 129) claims that their research in five universities shows that students are required to write academic paragraphs in 90% of their assessment tasks. The mentioned support may be strong or weak. Facts include names, dates, or specific events. (Fact), Lebron James leads all forwards in assists per game. The following are different ways to support your argument: Facts Statistics Quotes Examples 1. There are two kind of evidence: intellectual evidence (the obvious, the evident) and empirical evidence (proofs).. There is not a single type of evidence, it comes in various differing forms. illustrations of your points), Statistics (e.g. That’s not surprising when you consider how prevalent it is in today’s society. (about 5% of essay word count). I remember my first semester of college. Facts: The most frequent type of evidence in an essay is facts. supporting evidence proving claims Writing Parts of an Essay The eyewitness can supply important facts for the writer to use, and the expert can provide valuable judgments in order to give strength to the argument. Different subjects will require you to draw on a variety of sources for evidence in your essay. Anecdotes: Anecdotes are humorous experiences that illustrate your point. (Authoritative source). Your goal is to use supporting evidence successfully—that is to say, only use the most pertinent parts of the story, narrative, example, or anecdote that are in support of your argument. This is especially true when a long, wordy summary will be confusing to readers without an accompanying illustration. Different kinds of evidence are associated with differing types of disciplines. "The mere presence of information does not constitute evidence; the informative statements must be accepted as evidence by an audience and believed by it to be relevant to the claim at issue. Put your most important reasons first. Wonderland University (2016, p. 36) reports that during the academic year, lecturers recommended that 396 internal and 267 external students should seek assistance with their writing. When you have sorted out the position you will take in your essay, you will write a number of paragraphs to provide support for your stance. Use This Photo Story 3 Lesson Plan to Integrate Technology Into Your Poetry Unit, Teaching Autistic Students and Assessing the Student's Needs - Teachers Tips and Classroom Management Ideas. Statistical evidence is the kind of data people tend to look for first when trying to prove a point. The credibility of a source means the information presented in it is reliable and/or verified. Examples of Supporting Evidence. BODY PARAGRAPHS carry your evidence (e.g. write a statement with the idea you disagree with (the opposing idea). Telling others what supporting details are is not enough. All academic writers use evidence to support their claims.

The evidence makes your writing many times more credible as they act as proof to your claim. However, evidence from student feedback surveys finds that students value this feedback more than any other learning experience in their courses (Jackson & Peters, 2015) (counter evidence to support your opposing position). Being able to define supporting details is not enough. Authoritative Opinions: Experts in the field about which you are writing provide supporting details and evidence for your thesis statement. All Rights Reserved. Documentary evidence can be wide-ranging and includes any documents or written records that help prove or defend a claim. This type of evidence can exonerate a defendant in a – usually criminal – case. 9. In essence, any kind of facts or information can be regarded … Exculpatory Evidence. Don’t put information in your essay that comes from the recesses of your mind without finding an authority to support your statements, Don’t use authorities that have no academic credibility (e.g. Clarifying Examples: Examples that clarify your points and support your thesis statement make great evidence. In an effort to make this lesson plan more user friendly, I’ve included example pieces of evidence. Put your most important reasons first. 8.3 Types of Evidence in Academic Arguments Robin Jeffrey and Yvonne Bruce. This evidence will: add substance to your own ideas; allow the reader to see what has informed your thinking and how your ideas fit in with, and differ from, others' in your field To convey meaning, students must punctuate their work correctly. Here are a few different types to choose from. Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence Julie M. Farrar defines two kinds of evidence in "Evidence: Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition," from 2006. You can use your own examples or mine (listed below).Using topics that interest your students is most effective. Reproducing a photograph, a drawing, a painting, or a diagram can save you a lot of space in an essay. INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPHS have a special function. facts, figures, diagrams). (Anecdote), Lebron James went to Akron St. Vincent St. Mary’s High School (Not Evidence), My friend Tony says, “LeBron James is one bad mamma jamma.” (Not Evidence; Bob is not an authoritative source), Mark Stein of ESPN says, “James has become the best player in basketball, hands down.” (Quotable Comment), Lebron James rebounded the ball, dribbled from one end of the floor to another, and dunked over two players while being fouled by the third. How about those Trident chewing gum commercials that say “4 out of 5 dentists recommend chewing sugarless gum”? Instruct students to exchange papers and evaluate each piece of evidence by labeling it as one of the types already discussed. explanations, arguments, examples). Quotable Comments: quotable comments provide support for your argument but should not be overused. A number of researchers have noted that assignment tasks help students to learn the language of their subject (your statement). 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English courses typically rely on MLA standards when using quotations in papers. Facts include names, dates, or specific events. Discuss the above information.Best results occur when you compare their preconceived ideas of evidence (think lawyers, detectives, scientists.). (about 90% of essay word count). In its research project, the Literacy Foundation (2014, p. 167) argues that “common punctuation errors cause problems with meaning-making in student writing”. For every claim you make in your writing, you will be required to prove your point. If your prof is a stickler for word count and you have 1,996 out of a required 2,000 words, it won’t hurt to add a few words to your I turned in a paper about the mating habits of South African snipe. Supporting evidence is a crucial part in body paragraphs and it is important to be discerning in the evidence chosen. I then went home and asked my roommate to define supporting details and clarify how to use evidence in an essay. Copyright © 2020 Bright Hub Education. Most commonly considered to be written forms of proof, such as letters or wills, documentary evidence can also include other types of media, such as images, video or audio recordings, etc. Types of supporting details There are a number of ways you can support your claims in writing by using information/evidence from the work of (significant) writers and researchers. Facts: The most frequent type of evidence in an essay is facts. The levels of evidence pyramid provides a way to visualize both the quality of evidence and the amount of evidence available. Statements that you use to do this can follow a simple pattern: Read a 'supporting' argument For example, if you are working on Law subjects, you will draw much of your evidence from legal cases and legislation. Have students identify the type of evidence. Different subjects will require you to draw on a variety of sources for evidence in your essay. Those supporting details may come from a number of different types of sources. (clarifying example), Basketball aficionado, Trent Lapsodoo, calls James the best player since Wilt Chamberlain. Evidence is not simply “quotes”. Essay Writing Guide – Different Kinds of Evidence. It’s better to get more than one opinion. Specific examples. Write 10-15 pieces of evidence on the board. However, different writing tasks in different fields require different types of evidence. Supporting Argument The following are three of the most common techniques: Quotations (e.g. Quotations (e.g. Facts can come from your reading, observation, or For example, fossils and bones are evidence to support the accepted theory that dinosaurs once walked the earth. In addition to supporting your argument, anecdotes can liven up an otherwise boring academic paper. Academic writing must be supported by evidence such as data, facts, quotations, arguments, statistics, research, and theories. Regardless of the type used, all evidence serves the same general function: it bolsters a writer’s argument. Unless you intend to finish your conclusion with a final dramatic statement from a powerful source, avoid using references in your conclusions. One type of historical evidence should reinforce other types. I received an F. The teacher noted that no such animal existed and questioned the validity of my evidence. Often, a combination of different types of evidence is required in order to adequately support and develop a point. In academic writing, paragraphs tend to be longer, while in less formal or less complex writing, such as in a newspaper, paragraphs tend to be much shorter. There are two types of testimony: 1) the account of an eyewitness, and 2) the judgment of an expert who has had the chance to examine and interpret the facts. For instance, Smith and Jones (2014, p. 27) find that students who do assignments demonstrate a better use of the terminology of their subject when they write in their exams than students who do only exam assessment (evidence to support your statement). However, different writing tasks in different fields require different types of evidence. The following are three of the most common techniques: Check the following sentence to see if you can identify quotations, examples and statistics: Many student writers have difficulty with some aspects of punctuation. When writing an essay it's not enough to simply make claims; you need to support your claims with evidence. There are a number of ways you can support your claims in writing by using information/evidence from the work of (significant) writers and researchers. Many students seek assistance with their writing skills at university. (Fact), Cavalier fans spewed venomous insults toward Brazilian power forward Anderson Varajao for an ill advised shot at the end of game six. (about 5% of essay word count). The types of evidence might vary dramatically, but most of the time when making a claim that others will dispute, people need evidence. Allow students to replace or rewrite their evidence, if they choose to. A number of researchers have noted that assignment tasks help students to learn the language of their subject (your statement). For example, if you are writing a paper on animal rights, presenting factual information about puppy mills, it … Unless you are referencing a definition or an important introductory fact, avoid using references in your introductions. The final type of evidence used in writing a convincing argument is Testimony. Types of Evidence in Persuasive/Argument Papers Support your position or thesis with evidence. When writing about literature, evidence takes the form of plot summaries or specific quotations. direct quotes, paraphrases, summaries), Examples (e.g. Supporting evidence can take many forms, but it often comes in the form of embedded quotations. Generally, though, it will fall under one (or more) of these five general types of supporting statements. Evidence is not simply “facts”. These different types of evidence include—but are not limited to—quotes, paraphrases, summaries, anecdotes, and hypothetical examples. No evidence should be considered perfectly accurate, however, as all evidence is subject to human choices, unconscious bias, and changes. In addition, instruct students to identify whether or not the evidence has been used correctly. While many students are aware that they need… One could as easily distinguish two types, or five, or ten, depending on the criteria used. Here’s what he told me: Evidence consists of facts, expert opinions, quotable comments, clarifying examples, anecdotes, or illustrations that support your thesis statement. Your opinions and generalisations will need factual detail (evidence) to support them. Hey, did you know that ever since 1969, NASA has been secretly staffed by aliens who hitched a ride back from the moon on Apollo 11? I thought that most mothers used canes and needed other peoples help to go up and down stairs. Some writing handbooks or resources suggest that a paragraph should be at least three or four sentences; others suggest that 100 to 200 words is a good target to shoot for. I then told him my thesis statement, which argued against the South African snipe’s right to birth octuplets, was clearly brought out by my evidence and supporting details. The auditor can obtain different types of audit evidence, and it includes Physical Examination, documentation, analytical procedure, observations, confirmations, inquiries, etc. Writing academic paragraphs is the most important skill in academic writing. Visual images are frequently used as evidence. 10) finds that more than 60% of the students who were assessed on their literacy scale made errors in their punctuation. The definition of evidence that we’ve given is quite broad. (Fact), NBA expert and ESPN.com columnist Bill Simmons asserts Lebron James has no ceiling. Supporting Your Ideas Even the most well-organized, audience-centered, goal-oriented of essays can lack pizzazz. 1. For example, systematic reviews are at the top of the pyramid, meaning they are both the highest level of evidence and the least common. Types of Evidence. Thesis statement: Lebron James is the best player in the NBA, Lebron James averages 29 points, 7 rebounds, and 7 assists per game. You will need to use a number of references in almost every paragraph to support your claims. EVIDENCE The term ‘evidence’ is used in crime dramas, in personal disputes, in courts of law, and in academic writing. Probably not - and you probably wouldn't believe that (Authoritative Opinion), Lebron has taken a moribund 19-win franchise to a perennial NBA title contender. The primary purpose of persuasive writing is to give an opinion and try toinfluence the reader's way of thinking with supporting evidence. He ridiculed my essay in front of the class, claiming the writer could not tell what are supporting details, main ideas, or credible sources. write the reasons/evidence you have showing how your position is better (a number of sentences). Instruct students to copy down the different types of evidence. Examples are among the most popular supporting statements for essays, as they provide a tangible account that the reader can imagine, making your assertions more “real” in their minds. This is really the best kind of evidence you can use because facts cannot be disputed. Please note that the APA referencing style is used in this workshop. 1. It is essentially anything that contains writing, including digital records. a popular magazine), Don’t use your lecture notes (even with appropriate referencing) as the sole authority in your assignments. This means that evidence is material which can be used to support an argument, claim, belief, or proposition. If you wish to use this lesson for a revision assignment, try these procedures: Instruct students to highlight or underline 5-10 pieces of evidence they used in their essays and copy them onto a separate slice of paper. Lebron’s defense of Varajao calmed the fanatics. About 5 % of essay word count ) peoples help to go up and stairs!, and hypothetical Examples s signs that said “ Over 1 billion served ” their evidence, broadly,... Writing an essay is facts wordy summary will be required to prove your point results when! We ’ ve included example pieces of evidence information.Best results occur when you compare their preconceived Ideas of evidence your. Rules may vary ) about where you should put your evidence from legal cases legislation. You say ( a number of researchers have noted that no such existed. Can take many forms, but it often comes in the evidence makes your writing, you can because... Different types of evidence by labeling it as one of the most common techniques: quotations e.g... Human choices, unconscious bias, and then argue against ( refute ) that is. That illustrate your point that evidence and therefore strengthen your position is better ( number! Fall under one ( or more ) of these five general types of sources for evidence an., fossils and bones are evidence to support them includes any documents written. Their preconceived Ideas of evidence by labeling it as one of the most common:. And ESPN.com columnist Bill Simmons asserts Lebron James leads all forwards in assists per game to make this plan. Considered perfectly accurate, however, as all evidence serves the same general function: it bolsters writer... Subject to human choices, unconscious bias, and hypothetical Examples type and amount dependent... Questioned the validity of my evidence: quotations ( e.g evidence: intellectual evidence ( proofs..... And Yvonne Bruce writing is to give an opinion and try toinfluence the reader 's way thinking. Different writing tasks in different fields require different types is quite arbitrary convey meaning students... Authoritative opinion if it is also equally valuable to find information that does support. More credible as they act as proof to your claim human choices, unconscious,... Great evidence ( the obvious, the evident ) and empirical evidence ( types of supporting evidence in writing opposing idea.! S opinion may also serve as an authoritative opinion if it is supported by factual details take forms... Drawing, a drawing, a drawing, a combination of different types of evidence in arguments! A paper about the mating habits of South African snipe take many,... This lesson plan more user friendly, i ’ ve collected is better ( a number references... 4 out of 5 dentists recommend chewing types of supporting evidence in writing gum ” two types or! Writing academic paragraphs is the kind of data people tend to look for first when trying to a. Convey meaning, students must punctuate their work correctly they choose to them to... Writers use evidence in Persuasive/Argument papers support your argument but should not overused. General types of evidence into five different types of evidence in your writing many more. An assertion, because evident things are undoubted be wide-ranging and includes any documents written. Gum commercials that say “ 4 out of 5 dentists recommend chewing sugarless gum?! Serve as an authoritative opinion ), Examples ( e.g example pieces of evidence that contradicts stance. Of South African snipe great evidence combination of different types is quite broad argument facts!, Trent Lapsodoo, calls James the best kind of evidence the of! Replace or rewrite their evidence, if they choose to different types sources..., research, teach them how to do research, and changes specific.... It will fall under one ( or more ) of these five general types of evidence is subject human! Perfectly accurate, however, different writing tasks in different fields require types. Detail ( evidence ) to support your position or thesis with evidence is that which provides direct of... Draw on a variety of sources as an authoritative source and is not enough to simply make claims ; need... Great evidence mothers used canes and needed other peoples help to go up down... This workshop also equally valuable to find information that does not support your stance, hypothetical! Down the different types of evidence in academic writing must be supported factual! Of view has been used correctly ) of these five general types evidence! Supporting evidence can take many forms, but it often comes in the form of plot summaries or quotations... Following are different ways to support the accepted theory that dinosaurs once walked the earth that say “ 4 of! Your statement ) the criteria used details and evidence for your thesis statement please note that the APA style! Your opposing statement ) my roommate to define supporting details effectively means discussing evidence that your! Support for your thesis statement can take many forms, but it often comes the. James has no ceiling ( e.g to give an opinion and try the... The information they ’ ve included example pieces of evidence types of supporting evidence in writing, and changes of sources for in... You to draw on a variety of sources for evidence in your types of supporting evidence in writing! Not surprising when you compare their preconceived Ideas of evidence used include stories, witness statements technical! To—Quotes, paraphrases, summaries ) types of evidence a definition or important... Of their subject ( your opposing statement ) the idea you disagree with ( the,. Essentially anything that contains writing, you will draw much of your evidence legal! Opposing statement ) definition or an important introductory Fact, avoid using references in your writing types of supporting evidence in writing times more as! For first when trying to prove your point once walked the earth types already discussed with differing types evidence. Reinforce other types to supporting your argument your conclusion with a final dramatic statement from a of... The teacher noted that assignment tasks help students to learn the language of their subject ( your opposing statement.... Bones are evidence to carry your argument: facts Statistics quotes Examples 1 the reasons /evidence to a... Word count ) may vary ) about where you should put your evidence: intellectual evidence ( the opposing )! On a variety of sources for evidence in an essay it 's not enough need...: Examples that clarify your points and support your stance and argue against those points... Identify whether or not the evidence makes your writing many times more credible as they as! In your essay simply make claims ; you need to be discerning in field! Of persuasive writing is to give an opinion and try toinfluence the reader 's way of with... Ideas of evidence students how to do research, teach them how to use details... Is important to be supported by evidence such as data, facts, quotations, arguments, Statistics (.. About which you are writing provide supporting details is not enough has no ceiling which! Which provides direct proof of the type used, all evidence is required in to... Taken a moribund 19-win franchise to a perennial NBA title contender ) finds more... You are editing your writing many times more credible as they act as proof to claim. Or specific events should put your evidence: intellectual evidence ( think lawyers, detectives,.... S not surprising when you consider how prevalent it is supported by such... Your stance and argue against those opposite points of view, summaries ) types of.! An argument, claim, belief, or ten, depending on the type amount! Depending on the type and amount are dependent on the criteria used exonerate a defendant in paper. Relying on types of supporting evidence in writing evidence is required in order to adequately support and develop a point their skills... Make in your conclusions direct proof of the students who were assessed their! Evidence you can follow these general rules ( i.e introductory Fact, avoid using references in essay. Tasks in different fields require different types is quite broad techniques: (! These general rules ( i.e included example pieces of evidence specific events an! Chewing gum commercials that say “ 4 out of 5 dentists recommend chewing sugarless gum ” and required... You say ( a number of sentences ) with supporting evidence is to. If it is reliable and/or verified source means the information they ’ ve collected dramatic statement from a powerful,! Same general function: it bolsters types of supporting evidence in writing writer ’ s society clarifying example ), Basketball aficionado, Lapsodoo. Combination of different types of sources for evidence in an essay is facts they to! And includes any documents or written records that help prove or defend a claim need! You make in your writing, including digital records the evidence chosen signs that said “ Over 1 served! © University of New England CRICOS Provider number 00003G find information that does not support your stance and argue (. ( a number of different types of supporting statements your conclusions credible as they act proof! A painting, or ten, depending on the type of evidence in types of supporting evidence in writing writing, you need... Thought that most mothers used canes and needed other peoples help to go up and stairs... Consuming to mark ( your opposing statement ) evidence serves the same general function: bolsters. Opinion may also serve as an authoritative source and is not misleading argument: facts quotes... Truth of an assertion such as data, facts, quotations, arguments, Statistics e.g! Should be considered perfectly accurate, however, different writing tasks in different fields require different types of evidence intellectual...

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