The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. 2The 10 institutions were drawn from the 34 colleges and universities that Bowen and Bok (1998) included in their College and Beyond data set. Bowen, Bok, And Others. As Thomas J. Kane, who teaches public policy at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government, points out in his contribution to the Jencks and Phillips collection, roughly 60 percent of America's institutions of higher education admit nearly all who apply and therefore do not give preference to any particular race. INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. ↩ 26. 0000003191 00000 n But while the preference is smaller than at the most selective colleges, the impact on many students is larger (Thomas Kane's data indicate that black and Hispanic students receive an 8 percent to 10 percent preference at the most academically selective fifth of four-year institutions, but only a 3 percent preference at schools ranked in the fourth of the five tiers). . %PDF-1.6 See Jeffrey Rosen, “Damage Control,” The New Yorker, February 23 and March 2, 1998, p. 58. The traditional metaphor of the "pipeline," on the other hand, gives a false impression of a smooth, well-defined passage through these stages of … %%EOF endstream . 0000001104 00000 n There are nonetheless good reasons to do our best to overcome this gap. Laddas ned direkt. The aims and values of an educational institution are often revealed most vividly by the choices it … This closing of the gap, moreover, was due to rising black scores, not falling white ones, indicating that something -- perhaps the War on Poverty, perhaps increased black expectations, perhaps improved schooling, especially in math -- was working. Gender and Race Differences in American College Enrollment: Evidence from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 . Yet until now the debate has been mainly one of . Shulman, Thomas I. Nygren, Stacy Berg Dale and Lauren A. Meserve. The best of these students will attend colleges that are somewhat selective, and which therefore still exercise some degree of racial preference in admissions. The elusive graduate degree has a greater impact in helping to close the economic gap between the White and the Black middle class than any other factor (Bowen and Bok, 1998). Bowen, William G. and Derek Bok. . October 25, 1998, Section 7, Page 15 Buy Reprints. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998. A pathbreaking book by William Bowen and Derek Bok, published in 1998, was the first to systematically examine how beneficiaries of affirmative action fared. The five or six most competitive colleges, in other words, fight over the 300 or so African-Americans with the highest scores; the next 20 or 30 colleges, still top ranked, have to drop down to those scoring in the 1200's or below if they want their student bodies to reflect the percentage of the population that is black or Hispanic -- all the while rejecting many white applicants with much higher scores. 1. River Runs True. The landmark New York Times bestseller that demonstrates the benefits of race-conscious admissions in higher education This is the book that has forever changed the debate on affirmative action in America. Considering Race in College and University Admissions by William G. Bowen and Derek Bok. Should they lose out because they test so badly? William G. Bowen and Derek Bok Californians have voted to abol-ish it. Educational policies, programs, and practices emerge from the mission of the institution (Kuh, Schuh, Whitt, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Some of the evidence collected by Bowen and Bok confirms this; in less selective institutions, black graduation rates six years after entering college are significantly lower than white graduation rates. Bok and Bowen state that the journey from college admissions through career and family life is akin to moving down a long, winding river with many varied conditions. Implementing Race-Based Affirmative Action ..... 151 C. College … The benefits gained by minority students at the top colleges, in other words, could come at the price of greater conflict between black and white applicants to those less selective colleges where middle-class aspirations meet head on. . Bowen and Bok (1998) reached a different conclusion about affirmative ac-tion, based on higher overall graduation rates for minority students at selective colleges (28 moderately to extremely selective institutions). Robert M Solow letter replies to Alan Wolfe's Oct 25 review of William G Bowen and Derek Bok's book, The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences … Despite their lower SAT scores, black graduates of the nation's selective colleges are active participants in civic life. Bowen, William G.; Bok, Derek (2000) [1998], The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691050198; Bok, Derek (2001), The Trouble with Government, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0674004485 << /S 273 /Length 150 See Bowen and Bok, The Shape of the River, p. 50. Still, Bowen and Bok conclude that the overall picture proves that minority students are not ''overmatched'' in comparison with whites admitted with much higher SAT scores to the nation's top schools. But it would be wrong to conclude from ''The Shape of the River'' that affirmative action works. endstream The most selective colleges admit smaller percentages of black students than less selective colleges (Soares 2007, 174–75), and black students are also much less likely than white students to attend and graduate from highly selective institutions (Alon and Tienda 2007; Bowen and Bok 1998; Carnevale and Rose 2003). 0000000872 00000 n 9 In addition to having geographic spread, the 10 NSCE schools include representatives from public universities, private research universities, small liberal arts colleges, and historically black colleges and universities. PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE AND DISSEMINATE THIS MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY. Notes on the book Bok and Bowen, The Shape of the River: Long-Term Considering Race in College and University Admissions [Princeton University Press, 1998, $25 also at Amazon.com] Los Angeles Times "A compelling new book . <> . Amazon.com Selections; International Shipping. 0000003560 00000 n Across the United States, in courts, classrooms, and the media, Americans are divided over the use of race in admitting stu-dents to universities. This means that African-Americans who show up in the Bowen and Bok study have already won some of life's biggest battles. Kane (1998) also finds that black students who attend more selective colleges have higher graduation rates compared with blacks who attended less selective colleges. Köp Evan Help Us av Rhys Bowen på Bokus.com. Bowen and Bok (1998) con-clude that minorities receive a greater premium for attend-ing a top-tier school than white students, and Kane (1998) finds that the gains associated with attending a more selec-tive college are higher for those with lower test scores. 0000003457 00000 n (The corresponding numbers for whites were 8,239 and 16,216.) Between 1971 and 1996, according to Meredith Phillips and her colleagues, the gap between black and white test scores narrowed considerably, even though minorities were still underrepresented at the very highest levels. 1072 0 obj ... Reference: Embracing Diversity in Marketing Education They argued that empowerment must encourage The picture improves even more if one examines the years after college. x�c``�```�``f`вg�g@ ~�#��؛;�K��ʎ��1����dm���Ma�o�7�jwh��$�������.T���l�� ҹ�nCP�P�Z�#l�L�">(f`a�g��(�����!A�����acSgW C}0x �Wj� The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. . <> . 2005. endobj Of the 1,650 institutions that were list-ed in Barron's 2003 Profile of American Colleges, only 64 institutions, or 3.9 percent, were classified as "most competitive." . Amen. Robert M Solow letter replies to Alan Wolfe's Oct 25 review of William G Bowen and Derek Bok's book, The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of … But the absence of hard information is also due to the policies of educational institutions themselves, which keep secret the kinds of data which would shed light on who gets admitted to them and who does not -- and why. ing to William G. Bowen and Derek Bok (1998), legacies had a two to one admissions advan-tage over non-legacies. 1071 17 What Bowen and Bok have proved is that going to a top college works. . It detracts nary a whit from the accomplishments of either to say that even with the facts they present, the roles race should and does play in college admissions will remain hotly contested. 0000001454 00000 n A chapter in the Jencks and Phillips collection calls this ''disturbing'' and adds that ''most sobering of all, the performance gap is greatest for the black students with the highest SAT's.'' /L 748257 The Christian Science Monitor is an international news organization that delivers thoughtful, global coverage via its website, weekly magazine, online daily edition, and email newsletters. . But a high proportion of those students were again the beneficiaries of lower standards for blacks and Hispanics. . 0000003107 00000 n /Prev 726780 /T 726791 /O 1073 Goals of the Admissions Process ..... 148 B. … in Bowen and Bok 1998:6). is the subject of The Shape of the River--Long Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions by William G. Bowen and Derek Bok. When principle is at stake, facts become conveniences to be cited when helpful and to be explained away when harmful. . Almost all leading colleges and professional schools strongly support it. 0000001345 00000 n Bowen, William G. and Derek Bok. Bowen and Bok's book, "The Shape of the River," released Thursday by Princeton University Press, shows us what the UC system, the state and the nation will … endobj 1998 College Admission and Affirmative Action- Consequences and Alternatives Ihan Kim ... DEREK BOK & WILLIAM BOWEN, THE SHAPE OF THE RIVER: LONG. Hoxby (1998) and Brewer, Eide, and Ehrenberg (1999) find some evidence that this return to selectivity has increased during the last few decades. In addition to having geographic spread, the 10 NSCE schools include representatives from public universities, private research /Info 1070 0 R E-bok, 1998. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, n20 p120-22 Sum 1998. 1 'pThy Linda Chavez. The real problem arises among those black high school graduates who never fully recover from their initial disadvantage in testing and who therefore wind up scoring in the 800-1000 range on SAT's. INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. Critics of affirmative action say that it is unfair to black students to be forced to compete against whites who are better prepared for demanding academic work. Long Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions" (Princeton, September 1998) breaks this mold. endobj There is no more important step to be taken along the road to racial justice than building and strengthening a black middle class. >> Nonetheless, Jencks writes, ''the skill differences that the tests measure are real.'' 2 Much of the past research using the C&B data (such as Bowen and Bok (1998) and Dale and Krueger (2002)) 2 The C&B schools include Barnard College, Bryn Mawr College, Columbia University, Denison College, Duke University, Emory University, Georgetown University, Hamilton College, Howard University, Kenyon College, Miami University of Ohio, Morehouse College, Northwestern University, … They may well be correct. xڝW�n�8}�W��6pdɗ�n���1��^[i�@_h���ȢJRqݯ�ʖ/��ED&9�3��_�N���{��O��rܶ}6��ԅ���U��������yv�u��>����ύ��t�/��xTk�5��?�ݴ���?L��nw�۹����MG��މ��d��u��"���? Bok and Bowen state that the journey from college admissions through career and family life is akin to moving down a long, winding river with many varied conditions. . Whether the metaphor used is the “pipeline” or Bowen and Bok's Shape of the River (Bowen & Bok, 1998), the educational system loses many minority students during the undergraduate years. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998, 472pp. First published in 1998, William Bowen and Derek Bok’s The Shape of the River became an immediate landmark in the debate over affirmative action in America. International Shipping Eligible; Availability. . River Runs True. Bowen and Bok interpret these facts to mean that an increase in the size of the black middle class justifies racial preferences. (Even Bowen and Bok are obligated not to reveal the names of the five institutions whose admissions policies they examine in detail.) In their chapter in ''The Black-White Test Score Gap,'' William R. Johnson, who teaches economics at the University of Virginia, and Derek Neal, a professor of economics at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, show that wage differentials between black and white male workers can be attributed largely to differences in the acquisition of basic verbal and mathematical skills. by Scott Williams April 11, 2000. Bowen william and derek bok 1998 the shape of the. 1998. 1071 0 obj /Root 1072 0 R There is, as Jencks points out, a ''labeling'' bias: ''People hear statements like . First person: New book strengthens argument for affirmative action The argument about affirmative action in colleges and universities has been put on an entirely new and much more solid footing by virtue of the publication of The Shape of the River: The Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions.. The mission of an institution of higher education tells us what a college or university is about, what it values, what it holds to be true. ... Bowen and Bok interpret these facts to mean that an increase in the size of the black middle … /Filter/FlateDecode >> endobj It is nevertheless encouraging that even 14 percent of the black matriculants were from families so deprived. <> TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES. [���1�zM�v���0�p�. The pervasive use of such tests, he adds, constitutes a ''selection system bias,'' because relying on the tests rather than performance will invariably discriminate against blacks and Hispanic applicants. 0000010095 00000 n 472 pp. It grounded a contentious subject in concrete data at a time when arguments surrounding it were characterized more by emotion than evidence—and it made a forceful case that race-conscious admissions were successfully helping to promote equal … To some degree the fact gap exists because both those who defend affirmative action and those who oppose it argue from positions of high principle: a commitment to diversity on the one hand or a defense of individual merit on the other. Notes on the book Bok and Bowen, The Shape of the River: Long-Term Considering Race in College and University Admissions [Princeton University Press, 1998, $25 also at Amazon.com] Los Angeles Times "A compelling new book . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998, 472pp. has been cited by the following article: Article. First published in 1998, William Bowen and Derek Bok’s The Shape of the River became an immediate landmark in the debate over affirmative action in America. >> information, Bowen and Bok tically sophisticated-will mark a present an analysis that is care- watershed in national discussions * .~ ful, clear, comprehensive, and, of affirmative action and race rela- above all, candid. . Gokhan Savas 1, 1 Social Sciences … 1998. stream By the age of 6, black vocabulary scores match those of whites who are 5. startxref 1073 0 obj rung in the economic ladder (Bowen 1978; Bowen and Bok 1998; Boyer and Hechinger 1981; Nuñez 1998; Nuñez and Cuccaro-Alamin 1998; Pascarella and Terenzini 2005; Trow 2001), as college graduates on average earn almost a million dollars more over the course of their working lives than those with only a high school diploma (Pennington 2004). It is nevertheless encouraging that even 14 percent of the black matriculants were from families so deprived. ↩ 25. even more evident at elite research institutions (Bowen and Bok, 1998). Reviewed by Darren Woodruff, American Institutes for Research, Washington, D.C. 1998. bold response to this dilemma was the A introduction of affirmation action policies, which sought to increase educational and employment opportunities for minority groups who had historically experienced dis-crimination. They report high degrees of satisfaction with their experiences in college. 1998. Getting into and graduating from one of these colleges may well play a more significant role in the life prospects of a medium-range SAT scorer of either race than graduation from a top college plays for a high scorer of either race, for these are the colleges that historically made it possible to move from the working class into the middle class. For example, Bowen and Bok (1998) demonstrate that affirmative action policies at selective colleges and uni-versities have raised black students’ gradua-tion rates, earnings, and levels of civic engagement. Their book unintentionally fuels rather than quenches the passions over affirmative action. To achieve this goal, since the 1970s, but with increased commit-ment during the 1980s and 1990s, selective institutions gave qualified minority applicants an edge in admission. x�+ r r By scoring in the 1200 range on SAT tests, they are most likely either middle-class already or will push themselves into the middle class through their determination and effort. /H [ 872 232 ] Much has changed since Dewey (1916) first laid out in Democracy and Education his vision of the US as a state of perpetual inquiry where citizens are engaged in sharing educational experiences. Considering Race in College and University Admissions by William G. Bowen and Derek Bok. November 1998 ()INTRODUCTION. (2002), the admissions procedures in Israeli universities create a number of obstacles for minority students. TERM CONSEQUENCES OF CONSIDERING RACE IN COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS. “The Transformative Racial Politics of Justice Thomas? >> According to Greenberg (2002:526), the nation's 25 most highly selective universities offer about 50,000 slots annually. /Size 1088 The landmark New York Times bestseller that demonstrates the benefits of race-conscious admissions in higher education First published in 1998, William Bowen and Derek Bok’s The Shape of the River became an immediate landmark in the debate over affirmative action in America. The landmark New York Times bestseller that demonstrates the benefits of race-conscious admissions in higher education First published in 1998, William Bowen and Derek Bok’s The Shape of the River became an immediate landmark in the debate over affirmative action in America.It grounded a contentious subject in concrete data at a time when arguments surrounding it were characterized … << Cameron Howell and Sarah E. Turner (2004) document a similar advantage at the University of Virginia, where only 32 percent of regular applicants were admitted compared with 57 percent of alumni children. Using a sample of 28 colleges and universities with selective to highly selective admissions, Bowen and Bok (1998… TERM CONSEQUENCES OF CONSIDERING RACE IN COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS . November 1998 ()INTRODUCTION. dent bodies (Bowen and Bok 1998; Karabel 2005; NACAC 2006). %���� In our view, race is relevant in determining which candidates “merit ” admission because taking account of race helps institutions achieve three objectives central to their mission––identifying individuals with high potential, permitting students to benefit educationally from diversity on campus, and addressing long-term societal needs (Bowen and Bok, 1998, p. 278). A gap between blacks and whites on intelligence tests appears when children are 4 years old. See the article in its original context from. Last 30 days; Last 90 days; Next 90 days; Global Store. They also matter. 1 'pThy Linda Chavez. In their most impressive finding, Bowen and Bok show that of the 700 or so black entering students from the class of 1976 who would not have been admitted to one of the nation's more selective institutions had strictly race-neutral criteria been applied, 225 obtained professional or graduate degrees, 70 became doctors, 60 became lawyers, 125 became business executives; and as a body, they earned an average of $71,000 annually. 0000000662 00000 n DEREK BOK & WILLIAM BOWEN, THE SHAPE OF THE RIVER: LONG. Pages 11 This preview shows page 8 - 10 out of 11 pages. No work tells tions in general. And because Bowen and Bok's data are limited to the more selective institutions, they have little to tell us about the fates of minority students who never make it to the level of applying to those colleges. . The institutions we chose to sample mirror those examined by Bowen and Bok (1998) in their College and Beyond Survey. . ↩ 25. Bowen, William, and Derek Bok. Facts have been sorely missing in accounts of the role played by race in admissions to institutions of higher education. 'blacks have less academic aptitude than whites' as claims that blacks are innately inferior.'' from diversity on campus, and addressing long-term societal needs (Bowen and Bok, 1998, p. 278). . A co-author of that chapter is William G. Bowen. Bowen and Bok argue that both the colleges and the black students who attend them still benefit. endobj ADMISSIONS AND COLLEGE PERFORMANCE ..... 148 A . Such is the disparity between the races that a frightening number of African-Americans lose a good shot at entering the middle class even before they enter kindergarten. The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. 1076 0 obj Bowen, William G., and Derek Bok. Discusses a study conducted by W. G. Bowen and D. Bok that develops hard empirical evidence about the benefits of using race-sensitive admissions to selective higher education. 2The 10 institutions were drawn from the 34 colleges and universities that Bowen and Bok (1998) included in their College and Beyond data set. Educational policies, programs, and practices emerge from the mission of the institution (Kuh, Schuh, Whitt, and Associates, 1991). Office of Educational Research and Improvement . An even greater number of minority high school students will score so low on the SAT's or equivalent tests that they will not go to college at all or will attend technical schools and community colleges. Of 2002 facts to mean that an increase in the size of the River is the far-reaching! Of Considering Race in College and University Admissions '' ( Princeton, 1998... Encouraging that even 14 percent of the 's selective colleges are active participants civic... 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